Earthquake swarm in Krýsuvík-Trölladyngja volcano

Today (6. May 2024) at 17:43 UTC an earthquake with magnitude of Mw3,3 took place in Krýsuvík-Trölladyngja volcano. This earthquake was felt in Reykjavík area.

Green star west of Kleifarvatn lake on Reykjanes peninsula in Krýsuvík-Trölladyngja volcano. Earthquakes in other volcanoes are also visible on this map.
Earthquake activity in Krýsuvík-Trölladyngja volcano. Copyright of this image belongs to Icelandic Met Office.

At the writing of this article. This earthquake swarm is ongoing. It however has not constant and only has few earthquakes every once in a while at the writing of this article. This earthquake activity might increase, because it might be connected to stress changes in the crust because of inflation in Svartsengi volcano.

Earthquake swarm in Eldey volcano (out on the Reykjanes ridge)

Today (5-May 2024) at 20:33 UTC an earthquake with magnitude of Mw3,5 took place close to Eldey on the Reykjanes ridge. This is out in the ocean and considerable distance from land, so more earthquakes are happening then are being registered by Icelandic Met Office.

Green star and red dots out in the ocean, on the Reykjanes ridge. This is the current earthquake swarm on Reykjanes ridge.
Earthquake swarm in the Eldey volcano. Copyright of this image belongs to Icelandic Met Office.

This earthquake swarm is ongoing at the writing of this article. There are earthquakes that are only going to appear on Icelandic Met Office website after manual review in this earthquake swarm.

Earthquake activity in Reykjanes volcano

Today (22. April 2024) at 04:53 UTC an earthquake swarm started in Reykjanes volcano. This was not a strong or a large earthquake swarm. Largest earthquake only having a magnitude of Mw3,1. All other earthquakes where smaller in magnitude.

Green star just off the south coast of Reykjanes peninsula to the west part of it. There are also smaller dots that show smaller earthquakes in the same area.
Earthquake activity on the Reykjanes ridge and in Reykjanes volcano. Copyright of this image belongs to Icelandic Met Office.

This earthquake activity suggest a magma movement. It is however too little to start an eruption at the writing of this article. That can change without warning. Since the condition that the Reykjanes volcano is in is unclear, since its in part under the ocean and that makes monitoring it properly difficult and impossible in some areas.

Earthquake swarm in Krýsuvík volcano (13. April 2024)

I am sorry how late I am with this article. I was busy yesterday (13. April 2024) and I was unable to write this article at that time.

Yesterday (13. April 2024) at 10:02 UTC an earthquake with a magnitude of Mw3,3 took place just south of Kleifarvatn lake in Krýsuvík volcano. This earthquake swarm seems to have happened on a fault that is mostly known for earthquakes that are connected to tectonic movements in the area. This is not a fault that is connected to volcano related activity, as those are more in south-west and north-east direction. Faults that are connected to crust movement in this area have the direction north-south as seems to be the case this time. It complicates matter that magma movement deep in the crust can result in earthquakes happening on both type of faults. As I suspect what happened here.

Green star and a lot of smaller yellow to blue dots showing smaller earthquakes that happened in Krýsuvík volcano yesterday (13. April 2024).
Earthquake activity in Krýsuvík volcano. Copyright of this image belongs to Icelandic Met Office.

Krýsuvík volcano is not ready to start an eruption, best I can see. It is also missing a lot more earthquake activity before an eruption starts. But the signs that it is moving in that direction have started to appear. How long the wait is going to be when a eruption starts is impossible to know.

Earthquake swarm in Askja volcano

Today (25. March 2024) starting at 08:06 UTC and ending around 11:00 UTC an earthquake swarm started in Askja volcano. The largest earthquake in this swarm had a magnitude of Mw3,5. The area is remote and this earthquake was not felt.

At the bottom of this image. There's a green star and few yellow dots. This is the earthquake activity in Askja volcano.
Green star in Askja volcano. Copyright of this image belongs to Icelandic Met Office.

This earthquake activity suggests that this was a dyke intrusion. Eruption is unlikely at the moment in Askja volcano. This activity might be the first indicators that Askja volcano has started to prepare for an eruption in the future. When is impossible to know.

Dyke intrusion into Sundhnúkagígar from Svartsengi volcano yesterday (02. March 2024)

Yesterday (02. March 2024) at 15:57 UTC an earthquake swarm started in Sundhnúkagígar, all earthquakes where small in magnitude and around 150 where recorded. This earthquake swarm was as sign of a dyke intrusion that was starting into Sundhnúkagígar. It did not result in a eruption, but might be a sign of where next eruption is going to happen, when it happens. The dyke intrusion ended around 17:57 UTC.

This is a bit early, but it seems that this dyke intrusion moved or changed the rift valley it happened in. This rift valley was created in the dyke intrusion on 10. November 2023 (Icelandic Met Office has a image of it here). It might also have moved the rift valley that was created on 14. January 2024 (image of that rift valley can be found here, its marked with a blue colour). This rift valley situation is making the geology in this area extremely complex and volatile. Since the crust, the top layer is extremely fractured in areas of the rift valley and that makes it easy for the magma to find a path to the surface.

It is impossible to know when next eruption is going to happen. But it is my own estimated that next eruption might happen between 3. March to 5. March. I might be wrong on this, that’s always an possibility.

Earthquake swarm in Krýsuvík volcano

Today (26. February 2024) at 18:27 UTC an earthquake with magnitude of Mw3,4 took place in Krýsuvík volcano. This earthquake was felt, but I don’t know over how wide area.

Green star in Krýsuvík volcano, just south of Kleifarvatn lake. Along with few red dots showing smaller earthquakes.
Earthquake activity in Krýsuvík volcano, shown as green star. Copyright of of this image belongs to Icelandic Met Office.

This earthquake activity might be connected to the inflation that is happening in Svartsengi volcano, as it changes the stress values in the crust over a large area. More earthquake activity is possible in this area.

Update on the eruption at Sundhnúkagígar at 22:41 UTC on 8. February 2024

This is a short update on the eruption at Sundhnúkagígar.

  • Four hour GPS data shows that inflation has already started in Svartsengi volcano, that is currently erupting. This inflation seems to have started soon as the eruption started to get lower around 13:00 UTC.
  • The lava flow damaged the hot water pipe from Svartsengi power plant and now around 26.000 people on the Reykjanes peninsula are without hot water. There is also some damage to the power infrastructure, but that is minimal and that power has been restored on the power lines that are next to the lava flow. The situation on the cold water is unclear, but it was at risk of damage.
  • This eruption was larger compared to the eruptions on 18. December 2023 and on 14. January 2024.
  • Small ash cloud formed today and the reason for that, according to experts in the news. Was that the eruption in part of the fissured ended so suddenly with a pressure drop that the fissure walls collapsed, allow ground to get in touch with lava and then ground water started to flow on the lava. Resulting in two clouds, one dark and a steam cloud. This was large for an about hour or two. Steam cloud was ongoing at writing of this article, but darkness prevents me from seeing if this has stopped. It is likely though.
  • The eruption is ongoing in two to three craters at the writing of this article.
  • It is expected, based on current rate of how much the eruption is slowing down that it is going to end tomorrow, 9. February or on 10. February.
  • Next eruption is going to be in March around 6th to 18th March if current pattern holds for Svartsengi volcano. There’s nothing to rule out that a new eruption might happen sooner. It is impossible to know what happens next in Svartsengi volcano eruptions.

If anything more happens. I’ll post update soon as I can.

Eruption started in Sundhnúkagígar at 06:02 UTC on 8. February 2024

This morning (08. February 2024) at 06:02 UTC an eruption started close to Sundhnúkagígar, close to the area where the eruption started on 18. December 2023. The eruption fissure is at the writing of this around 3 km long, but the fissure is getting longer, based on views from web cameras.

This eruption is at favourable location. Since its far way at the moment from all buildings and infrastructure. That might change if the fissure stretches more to the south. This eruption started really quickly, according to Rúv, from the start of the earthquake swarm until the eruption started the time was only about 30 minutes. The time this took on 18. December 2023 was 60 minutes.

View of the eruption from Þorbjörn - 2 web camera. The red glow is at the distance.
The eruption at Rúv webcamera from YouTube. Copyright of this image belongs to Rúv ohf.
Red dots and green star along the dyke and the fissure. The earthquake activity goes all the way to the Grindavík town.
Earthquake activity along the fault valley and the dyke. Copyright of this image belongs to Icelandic Met Office.
Earthquake activity in the last 48 hours. Showing increase in small earthquake activity from midnight 00 on Wednesday and until the start of the eruption at 06:00 Thursday.
The earthquake activity over the last 48 hours. Copyright of this image belongs to Icelandic Met Office.

I’ll post more information later today when it is clear how this eruption is progressing.

Update on the activity in Hagafell on 17. January 2024 at 00:03 UTC

I am sorry that I am late on this. I’ve been working on my new server computer and its taken longer then expected.

The eruption has ended and it only lasted about 41 hours. The lava did burn down three houses and cause damage to road, cold water lines, hot water lines and electric lines into Grindavík town. A new rift valley formed east of the rift valley that formed on 10. November 2023. This has resulted in that Grindavík town is now an extreme danger area because of cracks in the ground that are up to 40 meters deep until a ground water level is reached. GPS data is a mess because all this been moving the crust up and down, depending if the area is either east or west of the rift valleys that have formed. It takes few days to see how fast the inflation is now in this area. The magma that erupted now did come from a sill that is located in Skipastígahrauni and Eldvörpum area to the west of the eruption site. It doesn’t seems like the sill close to Svartsengi erupted this time, since no deflation was detected there during this eruption.

The maximum amount of time until next eruption is around 30 days, with error of eight days at maximum. This might be shorter, because it seems that inflation speed is increasing. There’s lot of uncertainty in this because how the crust is now around Grindavík town.

Image showing the rift valley, along with how much it has risen or lowered in the area around Grindavík town. Along with fault lines and cracks that have formed.
Map of the rift valleys that have formed in the activity on 10. November 2023 and 14. January 2024. Copyright of this image belongs to Icelandic Met Office.

The eruptions are moving south along this area and that’s bad news, because that places the next eruption in middle of Grindavík town, once it happens in around 30 days. As is, the town of Grindavík can’t be lived in because of dangers from the faults and cracks in the ground. There has also been a major damage to infrastructure inside Grindavík already and added to the already damaged houses, roads and more.