Earthquake swarm in Presthnjúkar volcano. Update on Katla volcano

Presthnjúkar volcano: Few days ago an earthquake swarm did start in Presthnjúkar volcano. This earthquake swarm is entirely tectonic in nature. There is nothing that suggests that this earthquake swarm is connected to magma movements inside Presthnjúkar volcano system. So far this earthquake swarm has been slow and small. But the largest earthquakes have gone up to ML3.3 in size according to Icelandic Met Office.


The location of current earthquake swarm in Presthnjúkar volcano. Copyright of this picture belongs to Icelandic Met Office.

Katla volcano: Over the last 18 hours it has been quiet in Katla volcano. As no more earthquakes have been detected from it. I would not be surprised if there are more earthquakes swarms in Katla volcano in the next few weeks and months. It is an well known fact that Katla volcano is heading to an eruption. But nobody knows when that is going to happen.


Location of the earthquakes in Katla volcano yesterday. Copyright of this picture belongs to Icelandic Met Office.

Besides this two highlights of earthquake activity in Iceland. It has been rather quiet in the past few weeks. With just from ~100 to ~300 earthquakes during the week.

Earthquake swarm in Katla volcano

Around 17:10 UTC an earthquake swarm did start in Katla volcano. This earthquake swarm is focused inside the Katla caldera at small point. The one earthquake that I have so far been able to record was an long period earthquake, but that suggests that this earthquake was created by magma movement. At current time I am not sure from where this earthquake did originate from. But from Goðabunga area in Katla volcano this types of earthquakes are common and no surprise at all.

At current time I do not know what this means for Katla volcano. But so far no increase in harmonic tremor has been detected on the seismometers around Katla volcano. But that might not start at current time, as harmonic tremor is only going to increase when magma starts to move inside the Katla volcano, like did happen in Grímsfjall volcano few weeks ago.

The location of this earthquake swarm strongly suggests that what is going on in Katla volcano is an dike intrusion in the Katla caldera. If that is powerful enough to start an eruption is an question remained unanswered at current time.


Area of activity is marked by the earthquakes. Looks like an dike intrusion into Katla caldera. Copyright of this picture belongs to Icelandic Met Office.

I am going to update or post new blog posts as this continues to develop. I do not think that this events are over. But it is hard to know for sure, since volcanoes are impossible to predict.

Post post updated at 18:39 UTC.

General update of earthquake activity in Iceland and other things

Here is finally an new blog post from me. This week has been busy. As I did move to Hvammstangi again for this summer. But I did move to Iceland on the 5. June 2011. But just for the next 1 to 3 years, depending on how things goes for me. My work is hard, so I might not often have energy to write new blog post during the week. But I am going to do my best.

Now, the earthquake information on what has been going on in Iceland for the past two weeks or so.

Katla volcano: Even after the harmonic tremor pulse last week. Nothing special has been going on in Katla volcano. But it did come to my attentions that Icelandic Met Office did notice that in Week 23 there have been explosions (mine for road work in the area). So when an “earthquake” appears in that area. It means that an mine explosion have taken place in that area. I do not know when they are going to stop mining operations in this area.

Presthnjúkar: There continues some earthquake activity in the Presthnjúkar area. This earthquake activity appears to be tectonic and nothing else. The latest earthquake swarm taking place there appear to be starting tonight. It is hard to be sure how it is going to develop over the past few hours.

Other: There is currently not a lot other thing going on in Iceland.

I hope to make an better post tomorrow. When I am well rested and focused.

Harmonic tremor pulse in Katla volcano

There appears to be an harmonic tremor pulse going on in Katla volcano. While I currently do not think that this is going to start an eruption. It is worth watching this harmonic tremor pulse in Katla. But in the year 1999 this type of activity did result in minor eruption in Katla volcano on the 17. July that year (it is believed).


Harmonic tremor pulse can be seen on the SIL station Lágu Hvolar. Copyright of this picture belongs to Icelandic Met Office.


Harmonic tremor pulse can be seen on this SIL station Álftagröf. But it is hard too see it then on Lágu Hvolar. But that suggests that this tremor pulse is in fact quote weak one. Copyright of this picture belongs to Icelandic Met Office.


Harmonic tremor pulse can be seen on this SIL Rjúpnafell. It is more stronger signal then on Álftagröf, so it suggest that the source of this tremor pulse is closer to this station then on Álftagröf. Copyright of this picture belongs to Icelandic Met Office.

All pictures are from 16:28 UTC on 12. June 2011.

On other station around Katla volcano I do not see this harmonic tremor pulse on the Icelandic Met Office on-line tremor chart. But that does not mean that it this tremor pulse is not being detected on other SIL stations around Katla volcano.

The source of this tremor pulse is most likely an dike intrusion at great depth inside Katla volcano that is taking place without any earthquake activity. This has happened before without resulting in an eruption from Katla volcano (besides the event in the year 1999). I do not think that this means an eruption is going to happen soon. But this might signal that Katla volcano is about enter an more activity phase then in last few decades. But if that is going to turn out that way is something that only time can answer.

Less risk of large airspace disruption in a Katla volcano eruption

In the evening news in Rúv they tell about research (based on models) that suggest that it is going to be less chance of large airspace disruption like took place in Eyjafjallajökull volcano eruption in the year 2010. Reason for that is the fact that volcano ash from Katla volcano is normally not as small (less then 1 micron in size) as the volcano ash from Eyjafjallajökull volcano. But this small size of the early ash cloud allowed it too travel longer and hang up longer in the air then from more common ash clouds.

The reason for this is because of the fact that lava from Katla volcano are mostly basaltic and would create Hawaiian eruption if no glacier was on top of Katla volcano. Ash cloud from Surtseyan eruption is more heavy, as the volcano ash particles are larger and more heavy.

This might be a good news for the air travel industry in Europe when Katla volcano starts erupting. But this might create issues for the area closest to Iceland anyway. Depending on wind direction.

The Rúv news about this. Use Google translate at own risk.

Kötlugos hefði ekki sömu áhrif (Rúv.is)

Interesting earthquakes 20 km WSW of Laki in Eldgjá volcano canyon (Katla volcano fissure system)

There are interesting earthquakes about 20 km WSW of Laki. The locations of the earthquakes suggests strongly that they belong to Katla volcano fissure system. Last eruption in this area took place around the year 934. When the Eldgjá volcano canyon was formed. That eruption did destroy a older volcano canyon located in this same area (lava flows volcano ash did fill up that canyon far as I know).

The earthquakes that have been taking place in this area are small. The largest so far has the automatic size of ML1.2, but only ~4 earthquakes have been recorded so far. But what is most interesting about this earthquakes is the depth. The earthquakes that has the best automatic detection by the SIL system has the depth of 0.7 km. But that makes the depth of ~700 meters and that is a shallow earthquake. Given that this area has only fissures and no activate volcanoes. It is not unheard of in Iceland that a fissure eruption to start with no warning at all. Last time this did happen was in Gjálp eruption in the year 1996. Before that a dike intrusion into the bedrock did manage to get to the surface in Askja eruption in the year 1878, when a 25 km long volcano fissure did open up (small compared to Eldgjá eruption around the year 920).

I do not know what is going on in this area at the moment. As the activity so far has been too small to make any clear picture of it. But Katla volcano is a big volcano and it is not out of volcano league to make a new fissure eruption instead of the regular caldera eruptions under the glacier as Icelanders have gotten used to over the past 1000 years or so. Last time this did happen there are suggestions that there was a also a eruption at the same time in Katla volcano caldera. But that this has only been revealed during research over the past 50 years or so in this area.

I have also noted that there is a small increase in earthquakes inside Katla volcano caldera, not far from Austmannsbunga. But at this moment it is too early too know what it means for sure. There is no eruption is imminent in Katla volcano when this is written. Just too be clear on that fact.

A short history of volcano eruptions in Iceland

Here is a short list of known eruptions in Iceland since the year 900 (or around that time). There might be missing eruptions because of lack of historical data. This list might not be completed from the reference that I am using.

Year of eruption

Year ~870. Ash and lava flow eruption in Vatnaöldum. Settlers ash layer is created in Iceland.

Year ~900. Creation of a lava field named Afstapahraun.

Year ~900 – ?. Somewhere in Vatnajökull glacier.

Year ~900. Krafla volcano erupts.

Year ~900. Hallmundarhraun lava field is created.

Year ~900. Rauðhálshraun lava field in Hnappadal is created.

Year ~905 – ?. Somewhere in Vatnajökull glacier.

Year ~920. Somwhere on the Reykjanes ridge. Location is unknown. But a ash layer is known from this eruption.

Year ~920. Katla volcano eruption. Ash layer named Katla-R.

Year ~934. Katla volcano creates Eldgjá volcano fissure. Lava flow from Eldgjá volcano fissure flows over Álftaver, Meðalland and Landbrot. Mýrdalssandur is sad to have been created in this eruption by a big flood from Mýrdalsjökuli following this eruption.

Year ~940. In Vatnajökull glacier or in Veiðivötnum. Ash from this eruption has been found in north-east Iceland.

Year 999 or 1000. Svínahraun lava field is created in a volcano eruption.

Year ~1000. Katla volcano eruption. Ash layer has been found. There is a written account of the flood that followed this eruption.

Year ~1060. Somewhere in Vatnajökli glacier.

Year 1104. Hekla volcano erupts it’s first documented eruption in Iceland. This eruptions sends ash to north and north-east. The valley of Þjórsárdalur is destroyed by volcano ash in this eruption.

Year 1151. Krýsuvík volcano erupts. This eruption creates the lava field Ögmundarhraun and Kapellahraun lava field. Trölladyngja is also created in this eruption.

Year 1158. Eruption in Hekla volcano.

Year ~1160. Somewhere in Vatnajökull glacier.

Year 1160 – 1180. Eruption on the Reykjanes Ridge. Two eruptions on the Reykjanes Ridge. Ash layer is known from this eruption.

Year 1179. Katla volcano eruption. Written accounts are unclear. But ash from this eruption has been found in Greenland glacier.

Year 1188 – ?. Rjúpnadyngjuhraun and Mávahlíðarhraun lava fields are created.

Year 1206. Hekla volcano erupts.

Year 1210 – 1211. Volcano eruption on the Reykjanes Ridge. Eldey is created in this eruption.

Year 1222. Hekla eruption.

Year 1223. Volcano eruption on the Reykjanes Ridge. Location unknown.

Year 1225. Volcano eruption on the Reykjanes Ridge. Location unknown.

Year 1226 – 1227. Several volcano eruptions on the Reykjanes. The following lava fields are belvied to have been created in this eruption, Younger Stampahraun, (Klofningahraun), Eldvarpahraun, Illahraun and Arnarseturshraun. At the same time a large ash eruption takes place at Reykjanestá. The middle age ash layer is created in this volcano eruption. This volcano eruption created a lot of problems for the local population.

Year 1231. Volcano eruption on the Reykjanes Ridge. Location unknown.

Year 1238. Volcano eruption on the Reykjanes Ridge. Location unknown.

Year 1240. Volcano eruption on the Reykjanes Ridge. Location unknown.

Year 1245. Volcano eruption in Katla volcano. This eruptions comes up at Sólheimajökli. Flood follows this eruption.

Year 1262. Volcano eruption in Katla volcano. This eruption is in Sólheimajökli. It creates a flood and is followed by a heavy ash fall.

Year 1300 – 1301. Hekla volcano eruption. A lot of ash fall in Skagafjöður, a famine followed this eruption due to ash fall.

Year 1311. A volcano eruption in Katla volcano. Heavy ash fall in east of Iceland (austfjörðum). A big flood followed this eruption, it was most likely on Mýrdalssandi. But written accounts are unclear and unreliable on what did happen.The following year was followed by a famine with death of both people and animals due too volcano ash.

Year 1332. A volcano eruption in Vatnajökli glacier. Most likely in Grímsfjall volcano.

Year 1340 – ?. Eruption in Brennisteinsfjöllum volcano. But no lava field from 14th century have been found however.

Year 1341. Hekla volcano eruption. Heavy ash fall. The ash did go to Borgarfjörð and Akranes. A lot of animal did die. Many farms in Rangárvöllum where abandoned following this eruption.

Year 1341 – ?. Grímsfjall volcano erupts.

Year 1354 – ?. Grímsfjall volcano erupts.

Year 1357. A large eruption in Katla volcano. A lot of damage.

Year 1362. A large eruption in Öræfajökull volcano. It did destory the county of Litla-Hérað and most likely all people how lived there did die. Most of the ash fall was into the ocean. But some of it did go to Hornafirði and in Lónshverfi. A glacier flood did go down Skeiðársand and out to the ocean.

Year 1372. North-west of Grímsey.

Year 1389 – 1390. Around Hekla volcano. Several farms did go under lava field in this eruption.

Year 1416. Eruption in Katla volcano.

Year 1422. Eruption somewhere off the Reykjanes. Creates a island that lasts for few years.

Year 1440. Eruption in or around Hekla volcano.

Year 1477. Volcano eruption on a long fissure in Veiðivötnum lakes and it reaches the western part of Vatnajökull glacier.

Year ~1480 – ~1500. Katla volcano has eruption. Few written accounts of this eruption.

Year ~1500. Somewhere in Vatnajökli glacier.

Year 1510. A large eruption in Hekla volcano. This eruption creates the largest known historical lava field from Hekla volcano. A heavy ash fall too the south takes place. A lot of destruction in Rangarvallársýsla follows it.

Year 1554. A eruption South-West of Hekla volcano. This eruption lasts about six weeks. Created craters called Rauðubjallar and from them a lava field called Pálssteinshraun.

Year 1580. Katla volcano erupts.

Year ~1582. Somewhere close to Eldey is a eruption.

Year 1597. A eruption in Hekla volcano started 3. January. Ash fall did happen but did not create a lot of damage.

Year 1598. Eruption in Grímsfjall volcano.

Year 1603. Eruption in Grímsfjall volcano.

Year 1612. Eruption in Katla volcano and Eyjafjallajökull volcano. A volcano eruption did start on 12. October in Katla volcano. But it unclear when the eruption did start in Eyjafjallajökull volcano.

Year 1619. Eruption in Grímsfjalla volcano.

Year 1625. Eruption starts in Katla volcano. The eruption started on the 2. September and it ended on the 25. September. This was a large eruption that did destroy 25 farms. Most the ash fall was to the east in this eruption. First report about volcano eruption is written in about this eruption.

Year 1629. Eruption in Grímsfjall volcano.

Year 1636 – 1637. Eruption in Hekla volcano starts 8. May and is ongoing for about one year. Little ash and little damage from this volcano eruption.

Year 1637 – 1638. Eruption somewhere in the neighbourhood of Vestmannaeyjar volcano.

Year 1638. Eruption in Grímsfjall volcano.

Year 1655. Eruption somewhere in Vatnajökull glacier. Most likely in Kverkfjöllum volcano. A large glacier flood took place in Jökulsá á fjöllum.

Year 1659. Eruption in Grímsfjall volcano.

Year 1660 – 1661. Katla volcano eruption did start on the 3. November and lasted over the new year. Not a lot of ash fall. But a large glacier flood. It did destroy the farm called Höfðabrekka.

Year 1681. Somewhere in Vatnajökuli glacier.

Year 1684 – 1685. Eruption in Grímsfjall volcano. A large glacier flood in Jökulsá á fjöllum. One man did die along with large number of livestock.

Year 1693. Volcano eruption in Hekla volcano. This eruption did start on the 13. February. A lot of the ash did go to north-west. The ash fall did create a heavy damage in the nearby area.

Year 1693. Katla volcano erupts.

Year 1697. Eruption somewhere in Vatnajökull volcano glacier.

Year 1702. Eruption somewhere in Vatnajökull volcano glacier.

Year 1706. Eruption somewhere in Vatnajökull volcano glacier.

Year 1711 – 1712. Eruption in Kverkfjöll volcano.

Year 1721. Eruption in Katla volcano. Heavy ash fall, volume of ash is estimated 1 km³ and large glacier flood follows this eruption.

Year 1724 – 1729. Krafla volcano eruption. This eruption creates the crater Víti when lava did flow into Mývatn.

Year 1725. Eruption somewhere in Vatnajökull volcano glacier.

Year 1725. Eruption takes place south-east of Hekla volcano.

Year 1726. Eruption somewhere in Vatnajökull volcano glacier.

Year 1727. Volcano eruption in Öræfajökull volcano. Three people did die in this eruption.

Year 1729. Volcano eruption in Kverkfjöll volcano.

Year 1746. Volcano eruption in Krafla volcano. Only one eruption documented.

Year 1753. Eruption takes place south-west of Grímsfjall volcano.

Year 1755 – 1756. A eruption starts in Katla volcano on the 17. October. A heavy ash fall that is estimated to have been 1,5 km³ drifts to the north-east and creates heavy damage in it’s path. A large glacier flood goes down Mýrdalssand. It flows mostly west of Hafursey. Two men die due to lightning strike. About 50 farms where abounded temporary due to this eruption.

Year 1766. Eruption in the western part of Vatnajökull glacier. Most likely in Bárðarbunga volcano.

Year 1766. Volcano eruption in Hekla volcano. The ash cloud drifts to Húnaþings counties and Skagafjarðar. Ten farms where abandoned following this eruption due to the ash cloud.

Year 1774. Volcano eruption in Grímsfjall volcano.

Year 1783. Eruption on the Reykjanes Ridge. Creates a new island named Nýey. It is not far from Eldey. But it disappears soon after it’s creation.

Year 1783 – 1784. Skaftáreldar take place. A long with a eruption in Grímsfjall volcano. Lava flows over a area of the size 580 km². Volcano gasses and did create famine and shortage of green grass for live stock around most of Iceland. Effects of this eruption was felt over in Europe and most of northern hemisphere.

Year 1797. Volcano eruption in Grímsfjall volcano.

Year 1807. Volcano eruption in Grímsfjall volcano.

Year 1816. Volcano eruption in Grímsfjall volcano.

Year 1821. Volcano eruption in Katla volcano.

Year 1821 – 1823. Volcano eruption in Eyjafjallajökull volcano. This eruption started on the 19. December and was mostly ash fall. A glacier flood did go down Markarfljót.

Year 1823. Eruption somewhere in Vatnajökull glacier.

Year 1830. Eruption takes place somewhere in the area of Eldeyjarboða.

Year 1838. Eruption in Grímsfjall volcano.

Year 1845 – 1846. Eruption starts in Hekla volcano on the 2. September. A lava flow covers 25 km² area. Heavy ash fall follows this eruption. The farm Næfurholt was moved following this eruption.

Year 1854. Eruption in Grímsfjall volcano.

Year 1860. Eruption in Katla volcano. This eruption is small.

Year 1861. Most likely a eruption in Grímsfjall volcano that year. But it is uncertain.

Year 1862 – 1864. A eruption starts on the 15 km long fissure north of Tungnaárjökuls. It creates a crater rows called Tröllagígar and a lava field called Tröllahraun. The volcano responsible for this eruption is Bárðarbunga volcano.

Year 1867. Volcano eruption in Grímsfjall volcano.

Year 1867 – 1868. Volcano eruption around or creates Mánareyjar.

Year 1872. Eruption somewhere in Vatnajökull glacier.

Year 1873. Volcano eruption in Grímsfjall volcano.

Year 1874. Askja volcano erupts. Eruption may have started in February, when steam clouds where first seen.

Year 1875. Askja volcano erupts. A lava eruption did start on 3. January. A caldera starts to form later in January following this eruption.

Year 1875. A 25 km long fissure opens 18. February and lasted until middle of August. This is believed to be a dike intrusion from Askja volcano that did get up to the surface.

Year 1875. The largest eruption in history of Iceland started on the 28. March and lasted for about 8 hours. In this eruption the crater Víti erupted and other caters. There was a heavy ash fall in east of Iceland. This did destroy many farms in the east of Iceland. The Askja lake was created in this eruption. Many other eruption where documented in the following months.

Year 1876. The eruption from Askja volcano is believed to have ended in that year.

Year 1876. Eruption somewhere in Vatnajökli glacier.

Year 1878. Eruption in Krakártindur east of Hekla volcano.

Year 1879. Eruption close to Geirfulgasker.

Year 1883. Volcano eruption in Grímsfjall volcano.

Year 1884. Somewhere around Eldey. Poorly documented.

Year 1885. Most likely a eruption in Grímsfjall volcano. But it is poorly documented.

Year 1887. Eruption in Grímsfjall volcano.

Year 1889. Eruption in Grímsfjall volcano.

Year 1892. Eruption in Grímsfjall volcano.

Year 1896. Eruption most likely south of Vestmannaeyjar volcano.

Year 1897. Eruption in Grímsfjall volcano.

Year December 1902 – June 1903. Eruption in Bárðarbunga volcano. Eruption possibly in Dyngjuháls, exact location is unknown.

Year 1902 – 1904. Eruption in Grímsfjall volcano.

Year 1905 – 1906. Eruption in Grímsfjall volcano.

Year 1908 – 1908. Eruption in Grímsfjall volcano.

Year 1910 June 18 – October 1910. Eruption in Loki-Fögrufjöll (Hamarinn volcano).

Year 1910. Eruption in Grímsfjall volcano. Ash fall is documented from June to November in east of Iceland.

Year 1913. Eruption east of Hekla volcano in a area named Mundafell / Lambafell.

Year 1918. Katla volcano erupts. This eruption started 12. October and did finish 5. November. The ash cloud did go up to 14,3 km high into the air. A large glacier flood did go down Mýrdalssand. People was in danger. A lot of live stock got lost.

Year 1921. Askja volcano. Small fissure eruption.

Year 1922. Askja volcano. Small fissure eruption.

Year 1922. Grímsfjall volcano started erupting in September. This eruption did finish in less then a month.

Year 1923. Askja volcano. Small fissure eruption.

Year 1923. Grímsfjall volcano eruption. Small eruption.

Year 1926. Askja volcano eruption. Creates a small island in Öskjuvatni lake.

Year 1926. Around Eldey. Boiling ocean reported for few hours.

Year 1927. Around Esjufjöll volcano. Minor eruption. A glacier flood from Breiðarmerkujökli glacier that killed one person.

Year 1929. Askja volcano eruption possible. But poorly documented and uncertain because of that.

Year 1929. Eruption in Kverkfjöll volcano. The volcano eruption was observed during the summer.

Year 1933. Minor eruption in Grímsfjall volcano.

Year 1934. Eruption started in the middle March and lasted until middle of April in Grímsfjall volcano.

Year 1938. Eruption in Grímsfjall volcano. Was on the north part of the caldera. But did not break trough the glacier ice.

Year 1941. Eruption might have taken place in Grímsfjall volcano.

Year 1945. Eruption might have taken place in Grímsfjall volcano.

Year 1947 – 1948. A eruption starts in Hekla volcano on the 29. March. The ash cloud goes up to 30 km. The ash cloud goes to the south. The lava flow had the size of 0,8 km³. Most of it did go the west and south-west from Axlargýg.

Year 1954. Possible eruption in Grímsfjall volcano.

Year 1955. Possible small eruption in Katla volcano. Small glacier flood from Mýrdalsjökli.

Year 1961. A fissure eruption started on the 26. October in Askja volcano on a 300 meter long fissure.

Year 1963 – 1967. Eruption in the Vestmannaeyjar volcano system. Surtsey island is formed south of Geirfulgaskeri. Few smaller island are also created. But disappear quickly.

Year 1970. Eruption in Hekla volcano started on 5. May. Most of the ash fall was to NNW and into Húnavatnssýslur. The eruption the mountain only lasted for few days. But the eruption in Skjólkvíum the eruption lasted for about two months.

Year 1973. A volcano eruption starts in Vestmanneyjar volcano. A 1600 meter long fissure opens close to the town of Vestmanneyjar. About the third of the town did go under lava and about 400 houses where destroyed. This created Eldfell and Heimaey did grow to the east.

Year 1975. Krafla volcano eruption starts on 20. December. A short fissure opens on close to Leirhnjúk.

Year 1977. Krafla volcano eruption starts on 27. April, it ends on 29. April.

Year 1977. Krafla volcano erupts. Eruption starts on 8. September, it ends on 9. September.

Year 1980. Krafla volcano erupts on 16. March.

Year 1980. Krafla volcano erupts. Volcano erupts starts on 10. July, it sends on 18. July.

Year 1980. Krafla volcano erupts. The eruption starts on 18. October and is to 23. October.

Year 1981. Krafla volcano erupts. The eruption starts on 30. January and it sends on 4. February.

Year 1981. Krafla volcano erupts. The eruption starts on 18. November. It ends on 23. November.

Year 1980 – 1981. Hekla volcano erupts. The eruption started on 17. August, it lasted until 20. August. The eruption did resume on the 9. April the year later (1981) and did most likely end on 18. April.

Year 1983. Eruption in Grímsfjall volcano in the end of May.

Year 1984. A most likely a minor eruption in Grímsfjall volcano.

Year 1984. Eruption in Krafla volcano. It starts on 4. September and it sends 18. September.

Year 1985. Most likely a minor eruption in Lokahrygg in Vatnajökli glacier. Harmonic tremor is recorded and a caldera forms in the glacier.

Year 1991. Eruption starts in Hekla volcano on the 17. January. The power of the eruption quickly vanish. One crater remains active until 17. March. Little ash was in this eruption. Considerable amount of lava did flow south of Hekla volcano.

Year 1996. Eruption on a fissure between Bárðarbunga volcano and Grímsfjall volcano. This eruption started on 30. September on a 4 to 5 km long fissure. This eruption lasted until 30. October. The earthquake swarm did indicate the dike intrusion from Bárðarbunga volcano. Water that was melted in this eruption did flow to Grímsvatna in Grímsfjall volcano. The drain did happen on 5. November.

Year 1998. Volcano eruption in Grímsfjall volcano did start on 18. December. It lasted until 28. December.

Year 1999. Small volcano eruption takes place in Sólheimajökli glacier in the Katla volcano. Small glacier flood follows. The eruption does not break the surface of the glacier ice. This happens on 17. July. Earthquake swarm follows this event with largest earthquakes that are up to ML3.0 in size. Harmonic tremor is seen on seismometers around Katla volcano.

Year 2000. Eruption did start in Hekla volcano on the 26. February. It lasted until 8. March. Little ash did follow this eruption. Lava flow was not considerable large.

Year 2004. Eruption did start in Grímsfjall volcano on 4. November.

Year 2010. Eruption starts in Eyjafjallajökull volcano after a large earthquake swarm in it. The first phase of the eruption takes place in Fimmvörðuhálsi when a eruption starts there on 20. March. A eruption starts in the main crater on Eyjafjallajökull volcano on 14. April. A ash clouds follows it along with a glacier flood that goes down Markarfljót. Some damage takes place in this eruption the nearby area of Eyjafjallajökull volcano.

Year 2011. Largest eruption in 140 years Grímsfjall volcano start on May 21. It ended on May 25. The ash cloud coming from the eruption was the largest one in the past 140 years from Grímsfjall volcano. No glacier flood did take place in this eruption. The eruption started around 17:30 UTC. But the first steam cloud was not observed until around 18:32 UTC. The ash cloud did reach the hight of 20 km. But did soon drop down to 10 km. Three days after the eruption did start it did loose power at fast rate and was over on May 25.

Year 2011: Katla volcano had a subglacier eruption in July. This is the second eruption of the year 2011 in Iceland. A glacier flood followed this minor eruption of Katla volcano. The eruption started on 8th of July and ended on 9th July.

Year 2011: Hamarinn volcano might have (most likely) had a eruption week after Katla volcano. Glacier flood followed this minor eruption of Hamarinn volcano. The eruption ended 13 July. Total eruption time was around 12 to 14 hours.

Year 2014.

Bárðarbunga volcano

  • Two eruptions in the period of 16 – 22-August-2014. Exact time and date not known at the moment. Each eruption lasted for up to 24 hours at most.
  • Eruption 23-August-2014 under the glacier. Lasted for ~6 hours.
  • Eruption 29-August-2014 in Holuhraun. Lasted for ~4 hours.
  • Eruption 31-August-2014, it ended on 27-Februar-2015. It lasted for almost 6 months.
  • It is not clear how many minor eruptions have taken place under the glacier. Only documented eruptions are mentioned.

Year 2017

Katla volcano.
Start date: 29-July
End date: 29-July

A minor eruption took place in Katla volcano during the night of 29-July. It only lasted for 2 to 3 hours and was not visible and did not break trough the glacier. This eruption was only observed on harmonic tremor data from Icelandic Met office.


The minor eruption in Katla volcano as it appeared on harmonic tremor data on Icelandic Met Office SIL station. Copyright of this image belongs to Icelandic Met Office.

Before and after this even a small glacier flood appeared in Múlakvísl glacier river that comes from Mýrdalsjökull glacier. That glacier flood ended in the early mornings of 30-July-2017.
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This is the list of eruptions so far. It is not free of errors or typos. I am also going to update this list on a later date if I have to. As it is incomplete in regards to number of volcanoes mentioned in him.

Reference.

Eldgosaannáll Íslands (Wiki, Icelandic)
2010 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull (Wiki)
Ármann Höskuldsson. „Hvert er öflugasta eldgos á Íslandi sem vitað er um?“. Vísindavefurinn 15.10.2010. http://visindavefur.is/?id=57031. (Skoðað 3.4.2011). (Icelandic)

Text is updated at 01:21 UTC on 4. April 2011. Error corrections to the list.
Text updated at 28. June 2011 at 22:34 UTC. Added Grímsfjall volcano eruption to the list.
Text updated at 28 September, 2011 at 12:56 UTC. Added Katla volcano eruption and Hamarinn volcano possible eruption to the list.
Article updated on 24-January-2015 at 00:57 UTC.
Article updated on 03-March-2015 at 15:14 UTC.
Article updated on 10-January-2016 at 19:19 UTC.
Article updated on 04-March-2016 at 03:00 UTC.
Article updated on 04-March-2016 at 03:08 UTC.
Article updated on 30-July-2017 at 20:18 UTC.
Article updated on 3-March-2019 at 00:24 UTC.

Frost earthquakes around Eyjafjallajökull volcano and Mýrdalsjökull

Over the last few hours it has been getting cold. The frost has been getting down to -10C and even colder in the higher areas. This has started a interesting events that takes place in Iceland (this might happen elsewhere too). But the events that take place here are frost earthquakes. This are not real earthquakes, but a event that the frost creates and are in fact false earthquakes. Most of them are too small and too poor in terms of quality to be located by the SIL network that Icelandic Met Office has. But when there is a sudden drop in temperature the frost earthquakes can appear on the SIL network, but with a extremely low quality. The driving force behind this earthquakes is water that is freezing in the ground and in rocks (cracks).

During the next 24 hours or so there is going to be a cold snap in Iceland with temperature going down to -20C in some areas, and even lower at glacier and higher areas. So we can expect a lot of frost earthquakes (false earthquakes) in that time. So the Icelandic Met Office maps might start to look interesting and with a lot of earthquakes in the next 24 hours.


Picture: Icelandic Met Office Picture saved: 6th January 2011 at 20:39 UTC.

Frost earthquakes on Fagurholsmyri SIL station close to Öræfajökull volcano and Esjufjöll volcano. This frost earthquakes are not located by the automatic SIL system.

The weather forecast in Iceland: Temperature

Iceland news about this. Use Google translate at own risk.

Frostbrestir í Eyjafjallajökli (Vísir.is)

Text is updated at 22:46 UTC on 6th of January 2011. News link is added.

New SIL seismometers around Eyjafjallajökull volcano and Mýrdalsjökull (Katla)

The seismometers that British Geological Survey did pay for to be installed around Eyjafjallajökull volcano and Mýrdalsjökull (Katla volcano) have been integrated into the Icelandic Met Office SIL Seismometer Network. They have at least been marked into the Icelandic Met Office earthquake web page.


Image is from Icelandic Met Office. Copyright of this picture belongs to them.

The new stations are marked with a triangles on the map. The older SIL stations can be found at Icelandic Met Office tremor web page. Currently the new SIL stations are not on Icelandic Met Office Tremor web page yet.

What this means for earthquake recording in this area is that Icelandic Met Office is now able to detect smaller earthquakes. Location of earthquakes is also going to improve a great deal, so automatic location of earthquakes is going to improve a great deal in this area. This means that more earthquakes are going to be visible on Icelandic Met Office maps then before.