Earthquake swarm north of Langjökull glacier and volcano, new hole found in Selfoss town

This is a short update.

Langjökull glacier: Yesterday there was a minor earthquake swarm north of Langjökull glacier and volcano. This area did last time was last year when a good sized earthquake swarm did happen in this area, but last year it did start around this time of year and lasted until November. It remains to be seen if that happens now. So far all the data suggests that this earthquake swarm is just tectonic in nature. It also appears that earthquake swarms in this area start slowly with long breaks between them. So I am expecting more earthquakes there. Unless this has just been a single event with no repeats.

SISZ: On Selfoss town they have just found a new strange hole in the road. The opening of the hole is about 1.5 meter in size. But the depth is about 6 meters (guess?) and area that is hollow under the hole is few hundred meters (guess?) according to the news. It is believed that this did happen because of the SISZ Mb6.3 earthquake that did happen in this area in the year 2008.

Here are news about, with pictures of the hole.

Jarðskjálftahola á Selfossi (Rú, Icelandic, Picture)
Hola myndaðist í jörðinni á Selfossi (Ví, Icelandic, Pictures)

Katla volcano: I think that something might be about to start in Katla volcano. But that is just a speculation that I am doing now. I am far from sure about it. But it should be clear in few hours if something is happening in Katla volcano or not. I base my assessment on rather odd changes in the tremor plot. They are hard to spot, but still there and appears to be growing it seems. But I am going to check and see what happens in few hours time. This might be nothing. But only time is going to tell us that for sure.

82 Replies to “Earthquake swarm north of Langjökull glacier and volcano, new hole found in Selfoss town”

  1. A Google Translate classic! 😀

    Jón Tryggvi Gudmundsson, equipment and veitustjóri center, said the hole looked pretty today.

  2. Jón, tremors at Godabunga and Lagu Hvolar are showing a steady anomalous behaviour. Is that what calls your attention?

  3. Hmmm… it’s dark but there is a little bit of “cloudiness” on the far left of the Katla webcam…

  4. Dare I? Yes, caution to the wind! Definitely something going on on Katla. A cloud that comes and goes on the far right of the webcam.

  5. Confidence level dropping as it gets lighter. It could just be mist climbing up the side. Oh, well, I’m not the first to be fooled. I had a bunch of people agree that it looked like a darkish cloud coming from a stationary point but it was quite grainy.

    1. You will notice it when Katla explodes.. Wont be just a cloud which is difficult to see..
      When it erupts the first you will notice are earthquakes, strong ones, increase in tremor followed by a big plume when the eruption melted through the glacier, not some small cloud arising from the glacier..


      1. Sander -I call attention to the thermal anomolias. They are in the same places, and white mist (right) and (left) gray mist. I’m not crazy: ( – Google Translate

      2. Did I offend you somehow?
        You seem a little agitated ..?

        Only thing I wanted to say is that in 99% of the cases there is just clouds on the webcam

      3. No, sorry if I seemed arrogant, Google Translation. I do not know English. 🙂

  6. Anomolous tremors?

    Could this result from the huge simultaneous crashes of the world stock exchanges? Lot of people felt those tremors and are still shaken by it.

    God appears noisy, but doesn’t it always?

    Wouldn’t it be nice to see the red, low frequency component (typically most meaningful), separately from the blue, high frequency (typically high noise), component?

    Or have a second chart which shows red plotted over the blue, rather than just always the opposite?

    These aren’t real plots, that is, no real ink used, so it’s not like it costs much for to implement the different perspectives.

    Am I the only one who is often curious what the low frequency might look like, unmasked by the high frequency (high noise) plot?

  7. Interesting tremor plot illusion:

    Doesn’t it appear that the red is of different shades at different areas of the plot?

    But it’s an illusion. The red is always the exact same color everywhere on the plot.

  8. Jon, are you still expecting that something might happen at Katla or have the tremor plots returned to normal again? To my untrained eyes it looks normal at the moment. 🙂

      1. I saw a difference in Godabunga’s as well, but not from this minute graph you are showing, but it’s easier to detect at the other one. But again, I don’t know. Just have never seen it look that way. At first, I took it for a spike, then it persisted and it is still showing that way. 🙂

      2. Does anybody else think that Katla, Hekla, Hamarinn and any other volcano thats ready to blow are playing a giant game of ‘It’s a Bomb’ and the first one to drop it erupts!

        I know over the last few days I have been voicing my opinion of Katla not erupting over the next few years, it seems however; that she is determined to prove me wrong! So for the time being… my moneys is on Katla! 😉

  9. Sam:
    Yes, they are all going to erupt… some day. When, no one knows for sure.
    We can see some signs of Katla and Hamarínn “warming up” towards a possible eruption.
    I believe that these tremors are associated to glacier melting, caused both by sunny days and high temperatures, but also, possibly, because magma is closer to surface.
    And I also think that these occasional “steaming plumes” are but interaction of warmer water come in contact with cooler air, located in particular spots where the collected warmer water sprouts out of the glacier.
    But this is not Jón’s opinion and I yield to his experience. 🙂

    1. Steaming plumes usually occur in geothermal fields. There is no such field known so far under Myrdalsjökull (at least its not visible yet), the only region in the area which produces some steam from time to time is the crater of Eyjafjallajökull.
      The glacier itself causes a lot of strange looking clouds due to its own micro-climate.

      1. Chris:
        “There is no such field known so far under Myrdalsjökull ”
        Not so far, I agree.
        As there have never been, since my observations, these specific cloud formations that we saw in the days when the glacier holes were formed, possibly by some kind of geothermal activity, as scientists have speculated. That’s my point.
        I believe there are subtle changes of behaviour taking place at the glacier, that could indeed be explained by micro-climate, but why not also from new magma getting closer to the surface?
        I only wished one of you guys could get a closer look at these spots, to take some measurements of water temperatures..
        And I’ll be happy to admit I’m wrong.
        So far I am not convinced.
        But I am stubborn and you guys are more acquainted to the region, so I’ll keep such speculations to myself. 🙂

      2. For all we now there cold be a thermal field the size of Manhattan under there and we wouldn’t know… since it is covered by that “small” glacier.
        But, we have just had one of the warmest summers in the northern hemisphere recorded, and something might have melted “up”. I agree with Renato, someone perhaps should take a look and take some measurements. Might be something, or not…

      3. Thanks for the support Carl.
        I don’t think you were around when we saw three funnel shaped clouds forming, and a little later, the news telling about a jokülhlaup and three holes being formed, probably by some geothermal intrusion.
        Since then I’ve been wanting to have someone pick samples of water sprouting from those melting edges, just to see what’s going on.
        Probably nothing, but just in case… 🙂

      4. I was following a bit, but not carefully.
        I have always been curious about those small Jökulhlaups that come now and then from Myrdalsjökull without any visible evidence of an eruption. I have sometimes thought it might be caused by increased thermal activity in a hidden thermal field.
        So I would say that your idea might have merit, and that it would be fun to see a water sample.
        Keap it up, you might be wrong, but it would be cool if not:)

      5. There are a lot of strange clouds visible over the glaciers. I have seen quite a lot of them.
        This holes are far away from the bottom of the glacier, they are estimated to be around 50m deep, the glacier is between 200 (outside the caldera) and 700m (inside the caldera) thick. So there is a lot more ice to melt before you see something. It took Eyjafjalajökull around three days of intense volcanic activity to melt through 200m of ice, if I remember correct.
        Water samples have been taken from the rivers around Myrdalsjökull at different points after the flood. I haven’t heard anything about the results so far.

      6. @Carl: Glacial floods are not so common from Mýrdalsjökull. I know only of three of them in the last 50 years, probably all connected to a small, hidden eruption.
        Glacial runs from Vatnajökull are ways more common – I remember at least three from the Skafta since 2008. Also there are floods coming from Grimsvötn every few years.

      7. One should always be a bit carefull when predicting ice melting time since one never knows how the ice looks on the bottom.
        We can take Vatnajökull as an example, what was it took? One hour to blow through? (Don’t hit me if I am wrong on this, it all happened when I was in the great blue yonder).
        Point is, it just takes one crack in the ice and we are talking about minutes…

      8. @Carl: That depends, where the eruption takes place. Grimsvötn in 1996 needed also a few days (I don’t remember the number right now, but I can look it up later) to melt through the ice shield. In 2010 the eruption had almost no ice to melt, so it appeared on the surface within minutes after the eruption.
        There should be much less melt from the glaciers this summer, since june and july have been exceptionally cold this year.

      9. @Chris:
        You might be absolutely right in there having been only 3 Jökulhlaups in the last 50 years. I only know of two in the last decade. Both of those might have been minimal eruptions, or large-scale thermal events.

        Take this in the spirit I write it in. 🙂
        You Icelanders are spoilt with Jökulhlaups!

        What I mean is that I was imprecise, a Jökulhlaup is massive on a scale I have a hard time wrapping my head around. I should have said “floodings”, because there are on a quite regular basis unexpleinable floods gushing out, but they are way to small to be noticed since they are so small compared to a proper Jökulhlaup. They might make sheep float away, but not much more.
        Those floods I think are related to the hypothetizised thermal field.
        I hope it got clearer now.

      10. @Chris:
        I guess you meant 2011? Otherwise I missed an entire VEI-5 eruption from Vatnajökull in 2010.
        Or where you talking about the Jökulhlaup without a visible eruption in 2010?
        Well, I was talking about the resent eruption that blew a hole in a very short time.

      11. @Carl: Sorry, of course I mean 2011. Typo.
        Regarding the glacial floods: This term has no size in it – this could mean anything between a few hundret cubicmeters per second (something like 350 m³/sec came down the Skafta a week ago) to 50.000 m³/sec which came down in the 1996 flood.

      12. I am pretty sure that there is some geothermal field hidden under Mýrdalsjökull. But so far none of them has shown up on the surface. Since the area is under close observation (especially after this small glacial flood), this would be noticed on short hand. Its also holiday season, so a lot of people visit the area and would notice things like that.

  10. Meanwhile we have some interesting quakes near Kverkfjoll volcano, nothing big but nice depth I think
    09.08.2011 10:30:44 64.662 -16.620 9.1 km 0.6 99.0 2.8 km N of Kverkfjöll
    09.08.2011 05:51:50 64.629 -16.573 1.1 km 1.1 35.05 2.4 km ESE of Kverkfjöll
    09.08.2011 05:51:50 64.624 -16.650 11.0 km 1.1 99.0 2.0 km SW of Kverkfjöll
    09.08.2011 03:32:14 64.623 -16.653 10.3 km 1.1 99.0 2.2 km SW of Kverkfjöll
    08.08.2011 23:43:34 64.626 -16.596 3.8 km 0.7 99.0 1.6 km SE of Kverkfjöll
    08.08.2011 17:47:11 64.630 -16.644 11.4 km 1.4 99.0 1.3 km WSW of Kverkfjöll

  11. Hi guys!
    To all of you and especially JON, very good job here!

    I’d like to know what is happening at:

    For me as far as I understood from here, now and then, this could be strange.
    Is this true? Am I catching it right?

    Hope I don’t bother you much.

  12. Look at it upside down and You regognize de Dow-Jones… 🙂
    At least You’re not alone to think it’s a little special. Whole Iceland seems to feel somehow “unconfortable”. Hard to believe it will remain noise for month…

  13. Sorry, didn’t see Jon’s answer.
    Thanks Jon, always goog to have Your opinion avoiding the unexperimented to see more than we should…

  14. I just checked some old figures (6 months and 1 year old) for the Krisuvik area. The figures I checked are the total energy output in the tremoring. It might not really mean anything, but they are up 50 percent since 6 months ago. And that is the average output. If you only count the low-frequency energy output it has doubled in the same time period.

    I also noticed a funny little spike at Vogsosar.

    About Katla, the pattern for HVO has changed a bit, but the levels of energy are still low. My few cents about Katla.
    I am as always more concerned about the long term (11 years) of build up at Hekla, a buildup that exceded the pre 2000 eruption figures 5 years ago.

    1. Odd that the Vogsosar spikes was visible 30 minutes before Selfoss was hit by that 2.0 quake… The tension in the area must be pretty high for that to happen I think.
      Seems like SIZS is rather active. Wonder if the hole got any bigger?

  15. A question up above is whether the aug 8-9 tremor stuff at hvo is highly anomolous …

    The link Jack@Findland nicely provided shows similar tremor signature on aug 1 and aug 4 at GOD (which is likely to be a better monitor of Katla?) …. so such tremor is not unknown near Katla …

    The plot also shows that such tremor is primarily in the high frequency, blue band, which is typically most representative of environmental noise … as opposed to the red band, which is where magma-induced harmonic tremor is most likely to show up.

    Anyway, the last link, for GOD’s tremor, shows Katla, as measure by GOD, is currently, at this moment, very subdued and at low tremor levels. As I see it.

    And recent quakes at Katla are very low energy levels … similar to the energy one gets from the food calories in single Big Mac hamburger. 🙂

    1. Yes the energy levels are low, but the pattern is interesting in its own way at HVO. The question is not if it is noise, because it undoubtedly is, no. The question is what is causing the odd little noise.
      The question is interesting, looking at the low-resolution it is hard to say for sure. But it might be gas moving, or something completely different.

      But I agree, to little energy.

      Nota bene, the energy in a big mac is quite considerable. If you count in calories it is enough to cause obesity, or if you count it’s atomic energy content enough to flatten new york… It is more up to the form of the process releasing the energy than anything else;)

  16. I’m wondering if the Grimsvotn volcano has caused the excellerated melting spots which have been noted at various places on Katla’s ice-caldra?

    In particular, the surface of the ice-covered caldera is notably darkened, and I believe that is attributed to ash deposited from the springtime eruption of Grimsvotn. And of course black and dark colors absorb sunlight energy, whereas pristine white ice/snow is highly reflective of sunlight. So the strong absorption of sunlight on Katla’s surface must contribute to the melting spots seen? Think how hot it is to walk on black pavement in the summer time. Ouch! Hot.

    Have Iceland’s volcano experts made any statement on this?

    1. Remember that this has been one of the warmest summers in the northern hemisphere ever recorded.
      Yes, some of the ash deposit on the image can be from Vatnajökull, but more likely is that it is deposits from Eyjafjallajökull last spring.
      Probably it is both, with the main component being Eyjamaterial. But, depending on the amount of melt it can be quite a few volcanos responsible. Enough melt and a lot of it would be from the long repeated series of eruptions from Hekla.
      And yes, the ash increases the melting initially. After a while it though slows it down. You can see this phenomena in the spring if you live in a snowy area. The snow-piles that is piled up by snow removing equipment has a lot of dirt in it, as the black crap and gravel accumulates the snow melts slower and slower since the layer in the end acts as a blanket. Yes the surface is hot, but the energy is released upwards since heat dissipates upwards, not down.
      But if that was not complicated enough, the amount of black surface changes the microclimate over the glacier increasing the temperature with increasing melt following. A big enough black surface can even create it’s own high pressure zone…
      Let’s just say that this year it has melted a lot…

      1. In the pit in the image the top layer of ash is from Grimsvötn 2011, the next layer down is from Eyjafjallajökull 2011. Between are about 10m of snow.
        The summer wasn’t very warm this year in Iceland. In fact it was much colder than usual. We had a lot of snow in the highlands and on the glaciers in june.

      2. You guys have been caught under the north atlantic low during the summer. On average it has been warmer than normal. I’ve been pressure cooked the entire summer.

      3. It was the warmest in 50 years in Finland. On some places the mean temperature during July was 4 degrees above the normal 30-year average.

    1. Seems like another big mac of energy being released, and not even the atomic version of it…
      First of all, look at the level of energy, it is rather low, even at the top of the spike it is very low.
      Second of all, the increase of energy in the spikes there are also minute.

      Compare it with this totally unvolcanic tremor-spike from Vogsosar. Not that the base energy-level is 50 percent higher, and that the spike is more vigorous in all senses of the word. Still not Viagra vigorous like a true Hekla spike, but still…

      Before anyone gets it wrong, VOGS is not meaning anything. It is just a good referense point. And the spike is due to tension in the SIZS, nothing else.
      Point is, Hamarinn, or whatever it is has to be more vigorous before I would rev up the engine…

      1. That’s for sure, and personally doubt that Hamarinn will (even geologically spoken) soon experience a ‘full scale’ eruption. There are hardly any records of any eruptions from Hamarinn penetrating the icecap. So I’d guess that this could be either the aftermath of a possible mini-subglacial eruption, which I doubt, or the build-up to one.
        This ofcourse is based on historical data and my dumbass-amateur instinct, so all that’s left I guess is just to wait and see.

      2. Hey, it is Iceland, it will blow up:)

        Of course everything on Iceland will blow up, even Kaldarsel (Cold arse). In which other country will you be sure of a fiery death in flames at Cold arse? As long as you wait long enough of course… 😉

      3. That’s for sure. But we’re a bit spoiled with 2 magnificent eruptions in 2 years, hehe. ;p

      4. Oh, I am content at waiting for the little party that sooner or later will happen at Hekla. It is after all more inflated now than ever recorded before.
        But… Who knows, even Hengill might put in an apearance and blow Kaldarsel up before Hekla blows…

        But my favourite volcano is Theistareykjarbunga, based solely on my perverse wish to hear american newscasters trying to pronounce it 🙂

      5. Kald-ár-sel = Cold-River-Summerhut. Do not write nonsense, please.

      6. Where the heck did you get the summerhut from? Not from the ár i hope…
        I could in a way buy the “sel” (“calm water area in a river” for those native to scandinavian languages) and “kald” is cold, but no… Kald arsel. Arsel is the same in all languages that harkeths from forn-nordic, ie, Swedish, Norwegian, Färöiska and of course… You guessed it. Even though it is wildely out of use in icelandic.
        So, you keap to your hut and I envision the farmer who frose his arse of.
        At least the Cold arse is correct according to the not so few and small dictionaries I picked up. It is Cold arse in english, and of course Kallarsel in Swedish.

      7. Oh, an the sign at the place sais Kaldarsel, not Kaldársel, the same with the rather large map I have of the area. If you want to argue, do it with the geezers printing the signs and the maps…

      8. And slightly off topic, all languages and countries have these weirdly named places. Here in Sweden we have Mensträsk (Menstruation swamp) and Kräkångersnoret (Vomit regret snot, can also be interpreted as Bovine regret strangulation), just to mention a few…

  17. Has the Katla cam been changed to alter it’s view point slightly or is it just the cloud conditions?

    1. @ Diana – I just compared the view with some of my saved screen captures (love those sheep!) and it appears that you are indeed very observant. The view has shifted to the left, showing more of the “valley” between the hills that are in front of Mýrdalsjökull.

      @ Renato – I took some screen captures the day of your “funnel shaped clouds” but I don’t know how to post them. However if you ask Jón for my email address I will send them to you.

      1. @ Diana & Denise-Marie,

        Now I also see that the view of the Katla cam has turned a bit to the left.
        Almost the same view appears at (though here I expected a view of Grímsvötn). This view is wider and goes even further left, right and UP. So in case of an eruption there will probably be more to see.

    2. I wonder if there is flooding or an expected flood from that little cluster of earthquakes that Jon pointed out a while back, the one on the south on the glacier. Too dark to see anything for now, though.

  18. Good news. I am going to open up a blog about solar storms and the effects of those along with other space related stuff that I like. As it is also my subject of interest. But that blog might not be updated as often as this one or my Icelandic blog.

    The link is going to be

    Currently there is nothing in that folder.

    On the volcano note. I am monitoring what is going on in Katla volcano. What ever it is I do not like it. But there also seems to be something taking place in Hamarinn volcano, even if it has not manifested it self in the last few days. When it does is hard to know for sure.

    Hamarinn volcano is fully able and has had major eruption in the past. If that happens now is hard to know for sure. But there have been minor activity (given tremor data) in Hamarinn volcano since July (see my last blog post for more details).

    Now it is just waiting and waiting some more on what is going to happen.

    1. Where did you find these records of major eruptions of Hamarinn? I couldn’t find any.

    2. There was this great U.S. Tv program called “Gomer Pyle”. It was about a marine and his drill sergeant. Gomer could tell if it was going to rain by stomping on the ground. He was ridiculed by others and his drill sergeant until they realized he could predict rain without fail. In the movie twister, the Bill Paxton character was a meteriologist that could tell when and where a twister would touch down such that even his arch advesary would follow him to the tornado.

      Some people just have an unexplained ability to see things. I don’t know why, but I get the same feeling about Jon.

      Jon, can you take a short trip over to Katla and stomp on the ground a few times and tell me whats going on 🙂

    3. I wish you luck on this, it’s a very difficult field (been in astrophysics part-time for nearly a decade). During that decade mankind has launched plenty of historic satellites,, but those poor little scientists are still scratching their heads… We’ve gotten some answers, but we’ve also invented new questions.

    4. Jon here is a link for your Spacewatch Blog.
      They have some good solar flare forecasts etc.
      It is for Aurora watch UK. They are based in Lancaster University. That is not very far from where I live.

      I have been receiving e mails from them for two years now. They are really helpful.
      I am sure if you have any questions they would help you.

  19. They’ve been going for a long time… Probably fracturing or blocking going on in the cryptodome, or degassing of the magma. Nothing good, but probably something that wont bit us in the ass the coming few months. Or… Hm… Lets just say that we shouldn’t by a beer for Katla 😉

  20. As well as all the readings for Katla, I noticed today on the Ruv cam that they have placed a marker at the edge of the track near the camera. I also noticed the glow from a theodolite now and then, so some extra monitoring seems to be going on in the area. The plot thickens…

  21. Questions for Jón or the other posters from Iceland —

    If Katla eventually erupts in what Jón is calling the “area of interest” in southern Mýrdalsjökull, would that be a subglacial eruption or is that area clear of the glacier? And related, if it is subglacial there, is the glacier thin enough in that area to make an eruption less explosive?

    It is my understanding that there has never been a recorded eruption there, at least not according to this map:
    Is that correct?

    1. My opinion of “area of interest” (in south part) is that is is created by accumolation (inflation) of other parts of the caldera, sort of “results” from this (likely caldera area is getting “hotter” by small dike-intrusions, near surface, such as one that happened when flood came down Múlakvísl river in early July this year). Katla has history of fissure eruptions under the main Glacier, like Eyjo did. My opinion of start of eruption in Katla is series of quakes (with Ml 2,5 3 or 4 minum each thrown in, time for this: 30 min to several hours) forming a rough line about north-east / south west (apx. 70 Deg Magnetic) followed by glacial melt phase in 1 – 2 hrs (and only forming WHITE CLOUDS for short while – for first phase – Eyjo did exactly so – only on first morning of April 14th, 2010 – this was only seen by few – but I saw it very early and clearly – I was in the area that early morning) . Katla only then beginning to “produce ash” into the atmosphere (and starting flood) and then the news whould break world-wide. An event outside of caldera in south is not known since early settlement before year 1000. Such (if it happens) could be fissure at first, then lava and/or explosive (like Eyjo, that was both explosive and small lava).

  22. Sinkholes appear mostly when an underground cave or subterraneous hollow space caves in and the ‘roof’ collapses. Often this happens because there’s an underground river that slowly corrode the space, or because changes in water levels, drought vs sudden huge amounts of water. Or when the sewers under a road are leaky. Last year some sinkholes appeared in China, and there was that huge one in Guatemala last year (and another in 2007) that formed because the volatile volcanic ashes underlying the city had gone on the move. For more info on sinkholes:

    In Galicia (North West Spain) near Lugo there’s a region where you see a lot of ‘dolinas’ and ‘sinkholes’. Here is one hole that appeared last year in the Serra O Courel/Sierra del Caurel. It’s not very likely this hole has been triggered by the big 5.3 in May ’97 or any other (this being the same area where the earthquake swarm at Triacastela happened two weeks ago). It seems the cave was already there.

    The area is a mix of karst and calciferous layers and it is full of caves where the Neanders once lived. You also see hollows (hundimientos) in the fields there. When the ‘roof’ of the calciferous soil over a cave comes down, either a hollow is formed, or a real hole, as in these pictures:

    There’s an article in the newspaper (Spanish & Galician) where a geologist says just after the hole appeared that the hole may be the result of either an underwater river, water seeping idownduring many millennia, or because of the nearby highway – in short that is ‘tremors’:

    In this blog (Spanish) it says the highway is only 75 meters away from the sinkhole, and when you descend into it there is just the hole that goes nowhere and apparently it’s a cave that has been there for a very very long time:

    Have fun with the Giggle Translate versions all of you who do not read Spanish…

  23. 0224 UTC, Aug 11, 2011… Katla summit… are those clouds?

    The Solar Activities are connected to volcanism world wide. The influences of astrophysical events within our galaxy are influencing our Sun, causing flares and changes in sunspot counts, and are responsible for changes in Earth’s weather patterns. They are also responsible for the changes seen in weather patterns on Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, and Pluto.
    Check out Dr. Henrik Svensmark, Danish physicist and Proffessor. His book “The Chilling Stars” is enlightening!!

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